TECHNICAL WRITING 14
Theapplication process for admission at CSU contains various steps.Those who wish to apply for a degree at the university should followthe following steps.Theinitial step involves exploring and choosing a major. Applicants arerequired by CSU to select a major. They are also necessitated tocomprehensively be familiar with the requirements of the chosen majorbefore submitting an admission application. This requirement is basedon the reason that, after the submission of an application, requeststo change a major are not accepted. The second step involves applyingonline as per the given dates and keeping with the deadline. CSU hastwo admission periods: the Fall admission which runs between October1 to November 30, and Spring admission running for the period August1 to 31. After applications are submitted, the university responds bysending email notification to the applicants acknowledging receipt. As per the CSU policy, some majors necessitate additional informationand this should be submitted to the respective department. Afteradmission, students are necessitated by the university to presentofficial transcripts with the intention of verifying eligibility. Insome cases, decisions for admission are withdrawn in case theadmission terms are not met. Therefore, reporting accurateinformation is important. Maintaining an up to date email address forcommunication purpose is a requirement. Students check theirapplication status through the applicant self-service.
SWISSPHONECOMPANY MEMO 12/18/2019
Cc: ChiefExecutive Officer
From: DukeSaxony, Field Extension Officer
Re: Directionto My House for Office Picnic
Followingthe decisions by the company’s board on 15thFebruary 2013, to have a office picnic in my place of residence, Ihereby welcome all of you and below is the direction instructions tomy house in case you are not acquainted of
From the New York City you can drive through Houston Road towards Morella Town which is ten kilometers from the city centre.
Locate the Mugo Kiburo Drive which is found fifty meters after Philip Airport before reaching Morella Town and drive for nearly twenty minutes at a speed of sixty kilometers per hour or along the Drive taking note to find the road sign below on the right
Follow the direction this sign points and the first apartment you find will find will be Joy Apartments and its gate is painted white with a lion sculpture on the left side of the road.
Go on driving again for nearly two kilometers at the same speed of sixty kilometers without any deviation till you find this road sign below.
Turn to left and after nearly one hundred meters you will find an apartment written Suna Apartments. This is where I stay and I will have the liberty to welcome you
Incase, someone has any question or any issue please be free to askbefore then.
Oncemore everyone is highly welcome for the planned picnic at my placeand I look forward to seeing you.
Thereare various steps that are involved while setting up the Internet ata private home. According to Geier (2011), these steps encompass thefollowing.
Planningthe network- The initial step is planning on the kind of network mostdesired for instance, wireless network. Employing a wireless networkis recommended considering that it offers the options for employingwireless or wired connections (Geier, 2011). They also offer the bestmobility due to their employment of radio waves.
Thesecond step is to obtain the required hardware. These include anetwork adaptor and a router for every computer. Besides, an InternetService Provider (ISP) is required to enable connection with theInternet.
Settingup the router is the next step. The Windows Connect Now (WCN) can beused to automatically set up the router. Besides, the majority of therouters are accompanied by a setup CD which helps in the set upprocedure.
Connectingthe Internet to the router follows. This ensures Internetconnectivity in the home.
Theother step is connecting the devices such as the computers to thenetwork. This is followed by creating a homegroup. Setting upInternet at a private home necessitates the creation of a homegroup.Doing this enables printers and files to be shared easily.
Thereare tasks that people cannot avoid and thus, must be carried out on adaily basis. In my case, preparing dinner is one of the activitiesthat perform every day and besides, I like doing that. I usuallyprepare my dinner after completing performing other tasks includingschool work among others.
The initial step is planning. Similar to the majority of life facts, planning is a significant step while preparing dinner. It entails deciding on the food to be prepared and putting in order a grocery list for the ingredients required.
After appropriate planning, the next step is making a menu.
The next step is organizing the ingredients to make them easily accessible while preparing.
This is followed by preparation of the groceries. It involves cleaning and chopping them into pieces as required.
After all the ingredients are prepared and in check, the cooking pans and utensils are set up ready for the cooking process.
After that, the cooking process starts. In this, ingredients are put on the stovetop following the right procedure.
Clearing and washing up during the cooking process. This involves washing the utensils and cookware after finishing using them to keep the kitchen tidy. It also ensures that the whole dinnertime experience is pleasing from the start to the end.
Removing the food off the stovetop and setting up the table follows as the last steps.
Thefive guidelines for effective reports encompass as put forth by Daisy(2012) include:
Knowing the purpose of the report-It is the initial and the most important step while writing a report. It is the key determinant of the type of report to be written.
Knowing the readers-Before a researcher initiates to write a report, it is significant to put in mind the targeted audience.
Knowing the objective of the report- It entails developing the objective of the research. It is the main issue that is addressed by the report.
Choosing an approach the approach to be followed by the report is the forth guideline.
Lastly is deciding on the report structure.
Atitle page is one of the components of a report. Considering that itis the first thing the receiver observes, it should be well formattedand all the necessary components written in an appropriate order. Itincludes various elements which enables the recipient to categorizewhat the report entails. Information that is contained in the titlepage encompasses name, course, name or title of the report, name ofthe receiver, organization or institution, and date of submission(Daisy, 2012).
Aconclusion consists of rational deductions founded on the reportfindings. It includes a broad summary of the main points analyzed inthe discussions and results part. A conclusion acts as an indicationto the reader about the end of the report, and its acts as a steppingstone to the recommendations part. Theaim of a recommendation is to propose measures to deal with theconcerns outlined in the report. They are rational, relevant, andpractical and flows the made conclusions (Bowden,2004).
Asthe name suggests, a formal report is prepared in line withestablished practices or requirements. It is submitted to individualswith official status in organizations, local bodies or cooperativesocieties (Bowden, 2004). There exists a superior-subordinaterelationship between the report writer and the receiver. On theother hand, no set procedures or practices are followed when writingor reporting an informal report. It is similar to an informalcommunication and it does not pay attention to the organization’sformal structure. They include staff, progress, short, andjustification reports (Bowden, 2004).
Anexecutive summary is a part of the document generated from the entirereport. It summarizes the whole report to enable readers becomefamiliar with the content without necessarily reading the entirepiece. Generally, it consists of the problem statement, backgroundinformation, brief analysis and conclusions. The main aim of anexecutive summary is to instigate contact between report writers andtheir target audience (Daisy, 2012). The decision of the readers toread a specific report relies on the notion offered by the executivesummary.
Aletter of transmittal is a formal letter from the report writer tothe company or individual commissioning the report. The letterconsists of information concerning report completion as well asdelivery. A letter of transmittal acts as starters as they offer thereaders with what is expected in the report. The four guidelinesencompass:
It should be placed subsequent to the title page.
Key report points should be included.
Acknowledgment to those who assisted in the report.
It should follow letter conventions.
Inany writing, it is important to get the attention of the reader,maintain their interest in reading, in addition to highlightingsignificant information. Some of the visual devices that can be usedfor this function include: Replacing text with tables, informativeheadings, as well as white space (Bowden, 2004). This makes the keypoints obvious to the reader. Another visual device is using emphasismethods such as italics and bold can assist in attracting theattention of readers. The last device is using vertical lists as theyassist in highlighting a sequence of information in a clear manner.
Discussionsection contains the interpretation of the gathered data. Itexplicates the results and weighs it against theory, analyzesambiguities, evaluates limitations, and notes considerable trends(Daisy,2012). It is an extremely significant part of the report, but thisdepends on the purpose, situation, and the reader. The guidelines forthe discussion part in a formal report encompass: it should containfacts as well as opinions numerous headings as well as subheadingsshould be used, long paragraphs should be broken up using listings,and illustrations should be used to offer explanations and persuadethe reader.
Aformal report contains nine sections. They include a title page, aletter of transmittal, a table of contents, list of illustrations,executive summary, introduction, discussion part, conclusions, andrecommendations (Bowden, 2004). These parts should follow each otherin that order. Every section is important as it contains essentialinformation that helps the reader identify with the report. They alsooffer a smooth flow of the report, and a good arrangement of thesection may assist in capturing the interest of the reader.
Areport introduction follows the executive summary of the report. Theintroduction outlines the issue to be investigated and itssignificance, as well as the technical goals of the report. Thecomponents of the introduction include background information, scope,research questions, and preview of the organization or the structureof the report (Daisy, 2012). Through these, the reader is able toidentify with the report. The introduction should be written well tohelp capture the interest of the reader.
Thereare various kinds of reports and each is written for a specificpurpose. This means that different kinds of reports consist ofdifferent kind of information. Besides, the structures are alsodifferent. The four common kinds of reports as put forth by Bowden(2004) include the following.
Researchreport- This type of report is common in learning institutions andagencies carrying out a research to investigate a certain problem. Itcontains various sections including a title page, an executivesummary, introduction, methodology, results, discussions,conclusions, recommendations, and appendices.
Businessreport is common in organizations and it is written for businesspurpose. It contains various components including: title page,executive summary, table of contents, introduction, discussion,conclusion and recommendations.
Ascientific report is the third type of report. Basically, ascientific report is a publication that covers different areasincluding clinical science, theoretical and experimental research inchemistry and physics among others. It consists of various partsincluding: title page, introduction, methods and materials, results,discussion, and conclusion.
Lastlyis a short report. As the name suggests, it is a brief reportdemanded by learning institutions, or organizations. They includeprogress, completion, trip, evaluation, or investigation reports. Ashort report is less time consuming. It contains a title page,introduction, discussion, and recommendations.
Editingis considered to be a significant report in professional writing. Itis an essential step in the writing procedure whose aim is toeliminate mistakes in a written work (Deegan& Sutherland, 2012).Editing entails verifying the contents of a piece of work to makecertain that the thoughts are rationally and obviously stated. Theverification also aims at ensuring that the content forms a logicaland significant text (Deegan& Sutherland, 2012).The six important guidelines for editing as explained by Deegan& Sutherland (2012) include the following.
Preliminary reading: This involves reading through the entire text without modifying anything.
Checking facts: It is important for the editor to ensure that the information featured in the text is accurate. Through this, the readers are able to read and obtain facts.
The report structure: the editor should ensure that each paragraph contains one idea, whilst every sentence contains one fact.
Beginnings and endings: Significant information should be put either at the start or at the ending.
Paragraphs and sentences: In every paragraph, the initial sentence should contain the subject or the main point to be discussed in the entire paragraph. The sentences should be easy to read.
Grammar: The grammar should be excellent and easily understandable by the readers.
Inmy opinion, the most essential guideline that should be put intoconsideration during the editing process is checking facts. This isbased on the reason that any work should contain facts that areeasily proven. The readers rely entirely on such pieces of work toobtain information, and thus may be mislead by wrong information.
Bowden,J. (2004). Writinga report: how to prepare, write and present effective reports.London: How To Books Ltd.
Daisy,B. (2012). Reportwriting.New York: McGraw-Hill International.
Deegan,M & Sutherland, K. (2012). Textediting,print and the digital world.Surrey: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Geier,E. (2011). Homenetworking all-in-one desk reference for dummies.New York: John Wiley & Sons.