Study on Improving Job Satisfaction and Retention
JOB SATISFACTION AND RETENTION 1
Studyon Improving Job Satisfaction and Retention
Job Satisfaction and Evaluation
The study evaluatesthe effect of social support in the working set up on workcommitment. It also analyses the impact of good working conditions onthe intra-organizational relationship. The study underpins theimportance of social support and ambient working conditions as theantecedents of organizational commitment. Organizational commitmentis highly linked to low job turnover and absenteeism, and high workperformance. The intervention seeks to test whether organizations canrely on ambient working conditions and social support to ensure jobsatisfaction and improve job retention. Given that work commitment isa paramount determinant of job satisfaction, the study explores thedeterminants of commitment an organization.
The study examinesthe co-worker and supervisor support additive effect on thecommitment within the company. The intervention expects the findingsto reveal that the support, which is offered by the co-worker and thesupervisor, leads to commitment within the organization. The studyalso expects the ambient working conditions and resources adequacy,to have an impact on the extent to which a co-worker or supervisorrenders support in a working environment. Therefore, adequateresources and ambient working conditions are considered as amoderator of the relationship between the supervisor and co-workerand their commitment to the organization.
The study uses thecorrelational method. It relates the findings from healthcareorganization employees. The employees were requested to fill thesurvey in their normal working conditions. A trained researchassistant who was not informed about the study’s hypothesisadministered the survey. The employees were asked to fill the surveyon a voluntary basis. The sample constituted 215 respondents. Therespondents were from different occupations as maintenance staff,practitioners in health care and administrative staff. Therespondents’ mean tenure was 12.5 years and their average age was38.5 years. The pilot of the study was conducted using a sample of 48students who were employed. The students’ coefficient alpha was0.89 thus supporting the reliability of the research sample (Rousseau& Aubé, 2010).
In the test, thesupport of the supervisor was measured using six items thatcover relationship existing between employeeand supervisors. The co-worker support was tested using the sixscales of items like whether their colleagues help them when theyneed support or whether their colleagues help them to developcompetency and skills. Job resource adequacy was measured on sixitems that included whether the respondents had access to thetechnical support, when they require it and whether theyhad enough time for completing the assignment. The ambient conditionswere measured using five items i.e. lighting, temperature,cleanliness, ventilation and sound. Finally, the commitment to theorganization was measured using a six items scale. The items testedon the respondents feeling about the organization, for example, oneitem tested whether the employees felt strongly a sense of belongingto the organization or not.
The study usedmaximum likelihood estimation and AMOS 7.0 to do the confirmatoryanalysis of the constructs used. The study compared one factor, threefactors and five factor models which used instructs that were underthe study. The five-factor model was found out to be better foradjusting the data. This was revealed through fit indices wherefive-factor model had 0.91 CFI, one factor model had 0.59 CFI andthree-factor model had 0.81 CFI. The five-factor model was revealedto be superior to other and thus the five instructs that were in themodel were considered to be distinct.
Simple correlationshowed that the co-worker and supervisor support were related tocommitment to the organization in a positive way. That is r = 0.44and 0.36. The supervisor and co-worker support correlation was r =0.54 which indicates that they are correlated, but they can beused separately to test their effect on commitment. On testing, thehypothesis one (co-worker and supervisor have the positive relationto the commitment) it revealed that both had an effect on thecommitment i.e. a regression of ß of 0.35 and 0.17 respectively.This supports the hypothesis one. The other findings showed thatsufficient resources affect the relationship between the supervisorand the commitment very significantly i.e. ß = 0.17. The resultconfirmed all the hypothesis of the study i.e. working conditions andadequate resources are very vital in determining the support thatdominates the worker-co-worker and worker- supervisor relationship(Rousseau & Aubé, 2010).
The study aimed atassessing whether the support that an employee gets from otheremployees and the supervisor can influence their commitment to theorganization. As expected, the study found a strong link between thesupport that is offered to the employees and their commitment level.However, the study revealed that the supervisors support to theemployee can affect their commitment to the organization more thanthe support from other co-workers can do. The unique contribution ofsupervisor and co-worker to the commitment had a variance of 8.8% and2.1% respectively.
The result of theresources on the commitment was also found to be paramount. Enoughresources in the organization and good working conditions are themajor determinants of accomplishment of the job. The workers feelmore demotivated and frustrated when they are prevented fromattaining valued outcome by either the resources or the environment.This prevents the support from supervisor and co-worker from leadingto commitment to the organization. The ambient conditions in the workset up was found to reinforce the relationship between the commitmentand the support.
A limitation of the study included bias of using the general methodin getting the data, preclusion of causality impact in the crosssectional designed used, and considering co-worker and supervisorsupport as uni-dimensional constructs. The study shows thesignificance of the social interactions in affecting the commitmentto the organization. Every organization wants to have committed humanresource who will in turn lead to a splendid performance.
It is worth notingthat, in order to ensure job retention and job satisfaction withinthe organization, the management should nurture social interaction.This can be achieved through helping employees to develop rapportwith the leadership, as well as between them. Commitment thatemployees have to the organization plays the role of reducing jobturnover rate, absenteeism, and improves job satisfaction. Accordingto the Maslow motivational theory, after employee gets basic needssuch as salary and fair compensation and security needs like jobsecurity they strive for social needs. The result of this study showsthe high importance of social needs within the organization towardenhancing performance and commitment. Therefore, it would beadvisable for the management to cultivate and instil a culture ofsupport in the work set up.
Rousseau, V. & Aubé, C. (2010). Social Support at Work andAffective Commitment to the Organization: The Moderating Effect ofJob Resource Adequacy and Ambient Conditions. The Journal ofSocial Psychology 150(4), 321–340