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Homeland security activities and programs in cybersecurity and privacy


Homelandsecurity activities and programs in cybersecurity and privacyprotection

Homelandsecurity activities and programs in cybersecurity and privacyprotection

Researchquestion: what are the solutions to cyber security threats faced byAmerica in modern times?

Homelandsecurity is responsible for all security issues that affect thecountry in all spheres. The spread of the internet has given rise tothe problem of cyber crimes, which range in nature and intensity. Theproblem of cyber crimes has especially affected the private sector ascriminals access and use data by private organizations. Thegovernment admits that the issue of cyber crimes is widespread, andadvance in technology makes it hard to combat the problemefficiently. The research question is aimed at studying the role ofcyber crimes in the United States.

Cybercrimes are responsible for loss of millions of dollars annually, andthe rise of technology has compounded the problem, especially becausecyber technology is always changing. Additionally, there is limitedknowledge of cyber security and among the personnel that areresponsible for security matters. This means that those who engage incybercrimes are secure due to their advanced knowledge in cybersecurity matters. The increased accessibility of cyber services alsomakes it possible for hackers across the world to engage incybercrimes without detection (Howard&amp Prince, 2011).The spread of the internet means that there are many people who canengage in cybercrimes, and this makes it hard to keep track.

Cybercrimesare facilitated by privacy of data. The United States has enactedlaws that enhance data security, and this makes it hard for homelandsecurity to access private data without permission. These laws enablehackers to commit cybercrimes and go undetected for long periods. Italso puts a legal protection to the crime as the people do not haveto reveal their data to the homeland security. The use of advancedtechnology has also facilitated cybercrimes as technology is alwaysadvancing.


Partnershipwith different stakeholders is one of the solutions that are morelikely to address the cyber threats faced by America

Itis important for stakeholders in the security sector to formpartnerships that will go a long way in enhancing cyber security.This starts with partnerships within the security organs such as FBI,Central Intelligence agency (CIA), Department of Homeland Security,Department of Defense, and intelligence communities. This can help incombating cyber crimes as it would lead to mutual sharing ofinformation, which is important in combating crime. Partnerships areimportant because they enhance the cooperation in combating crime.This means that there can be no loopholes and the department that canbest combat certain crimes get actively involved. This enhances theprocess of combating cyber crimes as it means there would be noloopholes in the ability to combat the crime.

Additionally,private organizations, which are mostly the targets of cyber crime,would enhance the process of combating cyber crime. The privatesector can have arrangements with homeland security that allowssecurity agents to supervise their data occasionally. This wouldenhance cyber security as any crimes would be easily detected anddealt with immediately. This can be done by using supervisorysoftware, which oversees cyber activities and detects any crimes assoon as possible (Howard&amp Prince, 2011).This would enhance detection and reduce cyber crimes. This would alsoadvance mutual sharing of information and knowledge, which can leadto improved security.

Thegovernment can also form partnerships with other countries to help incombating cyber crimes. The problem of cyber crimes affects the wholeworld, and it would be very helpful for the American government toform partnerships with other governments. This includes mutualsharing of information that enhances the detection and subsequentcombating of cyber crimes (Howard&amp Prince, 2011).This is because cyber crimes are not confined in one country and aperson in one country can perform cyber crimes in another country.Partnerships can thus, go a long way in combating cyber crime. Theprivacy data by private organizations also makes it hard for homelandsecurity to combat emergency cyber crimes.


Capitalavailability is a major problem when it comes to combating cybercrimes. This is because the research for developing security featurestakes a lot of capital and most researchers cannot afford the cost.The researchers also find it hard to access funding from thegovernment and private organizations due to the amount of moneyneeded. This calls for partnership between the government and theprivate sector in funding research on combating cyber crimes(Janczewski&amp Colarik, 2008).This would avail the funds that are needed for cyber securityresearch. Additionally, governments can form partnerships thatjointly fund research activities into cyber security. Capitalavailability is a dependent variable as is important in developingsystems that enhance cyber security. Lack of proper research makes ithard to combat emerging crimes adequately.

Useof genuine software is also important in combating cyber crimes. Thisis because corrupted softwares do not have security features that arefound in genuine softwares. This makes it easy for spammers accessinformation stored in computers, facilitating cyber crime. It is,therefore, important to combat the use of fake softwares as theyfacilitate cyber crimes. This ought to be backed by the affordabilityof genuine softwares so as to reduce the use of fake software.Moreover, pirated software often has spyware, which acts as a way ofavailing information to people who commit cyber crimes (Sanger &ampSchmitt, 2014).

Finally,cyber crime can be combated using legislation. The government oughtto come up with legislation, which compels companies to installsecurity features in their computers and use genuine software. Thespread of pirated software together with the lack of securityfeatures exposes companies to cyber crimes as hackers can easilyaccess data stored in computers. This involves partnering with thehomeland security to ensure that the companies use recommendedsecurity software, which enhances security. This will reducevulnerability to cyber crimes. The software also includes featuresthat report any attempts to commit cyber crimes and enables homelandsecurity to track those who commit cyber crimes (Gerdes,2009).The requirement to have security software installed in computers usedby computers will thus go a long way in combating cyber crime.

Researchindicates that funding in cyber crime research is highlyinsufficient. The available resources allocated to research andcombating cyber crimes is hardly enough to develop relevanttechnologies. The available technology available for detecting andcombating cyber crimes is outdated and cannot adequately address theproblem of cyber crimes. The homeland security department requirestechnological updates that can combat emerging crimes that arefacilitated by advanced technologies. The homeland security requiresadvanced technologies that they cannot access due to lack of funds.Additionally, the department needs to research in order to keep upwith changing technologies, but this is curtailed by lack of funds.

Anotherfactor that contributes to increased cyber crimes is the lack ofsecurity software installation by organizations that are vulnerableto cyber security. There is no law that compels organizations to havesecurity software installed on their computers, and this exposes themto cyber security as hackers have as easy time accessing their data(Santanam,Sethumadhavan &amp Virendra, 2011).This leads to increased cyber crimes due to lack of security. Mostcompanies do not install security software as a way of protectingtheir customers, but this exposes their data to hackers.

Piratedsoftware also enhances cyber crimes as the software often has spywarethat is used by hackers to access data stored in computers. Thisvulnerability facilitates cyber crimes as the hackers access datastored on computers remotely and use this to undermine cybersecurity. Some of the pirated software also lacks security features,and this makes it easy for hackers to access information on computers(Britz,2009).The pirated software is usually distributed by hackers who haveremoved security features so as to facilitate cyber crime.

Researchquestion: what are the solutions to cyber security threats faced byAmerica in modern times?

Hypothesis:Partnership with different stakeholders is one of the solutions thatare more likely to address the cyber threats faced by America

Cybersecurity threats are one of the emerging crimes that continue tochallenge homeland security. The spread of cyber crimes is as aresult of many issues that need partnerships so as to reduce theprevalence of cyber crimes. Partnerships among different governmentagencies are important in combating cyber crimes. This enhancesmutual sharing of information that enables homeland security toenhance cyber security (Howard&amp Prince, 2011).Partnerships with private organizations can also go a long way incombating cyber crime. This will pave the way for joint partnershipsin funding research for cyber security and reduce threats faced bythe United States.

Partnershipswith other governments can also enhance cyber security in the UnitedStates. This will ensure that the countries use the availablesecurity mechanisms to prosecute those who commit cyber crimes. Thisenables the American government to have access to people who commitcyber crimes in other countries (Britz,2009).It also facilitates joint research, which leads to improved securityas cyber crimes, are global. This shows that partnerships can go along way in combating international cyber crimes, which threatenbusinesses in America.

Enactmentof legislation is also a form of partnership as the security softwareis approved by homeland security, and it enhances cyber securitythrough protection (Clarke&amp Knake, 2010).The software also reports any attempts to commit cyber crime tohomeland security, and this helps to capture those who try to commitcyber crimes. Such partnerships also include mutual sharing ofknowledge, which ensures that cyber crime is reduced. Legislationwill compel all companies to install secure software as well assecurity features on their companies, which enhances cyber security(Clarke&amp Knake, 2010).

Inconclusion, cyber security is a problem that keeps changing due tothe changing technology as well, as increased accessibility to theinternet. The accessibility to the internet from anywhere means thatorganizations are vulnerable to cyber crimes from across the world.Strategic partnerships are a very efficient way of dealing with cybercrimes. The first partnership is between government agencies, whichfacilitate mutual sharing of information. The government ought toalso partner with private organizations in funding cyber securityresearch and sharing of knowledge. Finally, the government ought topartner with other governments in combating cyber crimes as this is aglobal problem.


Britz,M. (2009). Computerforensics and cyber crime: An introduction.Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Clarke,R. A., &amp Knake, R. K. (2010). Cyberwar: The next threat to national security and what to do about it.New York: Ecco.

Gerdes,L. I. (2009). Cybercrime.Detroit: Greenhaven Press.

Howard,D., &amp Prince, K. (2011). Security2020: Reduce security risks this decade.Indianapolis, Ind: Wiley Pub.

Howard,R. D., Forest, J. J. F., &amp Moore, J. C. (2006). Homelandsecurity and terrorism: Readings and interpretations.New York: McGraw-Hill.

Janczewski,L., &amp Colarik, A. M. (2008). Cyberwarfare and cyber terrorism.Hershey: Information Science Reference.

Sanger,D. E., &amp Schmitt, E. (2014, February 11). SpyChief Says Snowden Took Advantage of ‘Perfect Storm’ of SecurityLapses.Retrieved from New York Times:http://www.nytimes.com/2014/02/12/us/politics/spy-chief-says-snowden-took-advantage-of-perfect-storm-of-security-lapses.html

Santanam,R., Sethumadhavan, M., &amp Virendra, M. (2011). Cybersecurity, cybercrime and cyber forensics: Applications andperspectives.Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.