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Integrative Learning Project 1

BUSI650: IntegrativeLearning Project Bryon Coro

LibertyUniversity

Dr.Daniel Rogers

February 16, 2014

  1. General Dynamics Organizational Setting

    1. Strategic goals

      1. Vision

      2. Mission

      3. Values

      4. Strategy

    2. Goals, objectives, targets

    3. Role of Christianity

      1. Ethical approach to conduct

2.Chapter Concepts Integrationfor General Dynamics

2.1.Strategy

2.1.1.Market strategies

2.1.2.Operations strategies

2.1.3.Finance strategies

2.2.Output Planning

2.2.1.Selecting and designing services to be rendered

2.2.2.Market selection

2.3.Transformation Process Design

2.3.1.Measures for ensuring competitiveness

2.4.Quality Control

2.4.1.The standards of operation

2.5.Process Improvement

2.5.1.Flexible efficiency for long-term success

2.5.2.Techniques for reassuring success

2.6.Inventory Management

2.6.1.Internal operations vs. outsourcing requirements

2.6.2.Raw goods that are inventoried and controlled for easy access

2.7.Enterprise and Material Requirements Planning

2.7.1.The technological advantage

2.7.2.Master delivery schedule

2.8.Facility Locations

2.8.1.Locating for success

2.8.2.Site selection parameters

3.Supporting Analysis for General Dynamics Competitive Future

3.1.Operating Plan

3.1.1.Fiscal planning for the year

3.1.2.Pitfalls in assessing financial projections

3.2.Monitoring and Evaluation of Plan

3.2.1.Responsibilities and frequencies of monitoring efforts

3.2.2.Importance of bottom-up operational planning

3.2.3.Implementation process for review and control

IntegrativeLearning Project

GeneralDynamics is a leading company in the field of business aviation,shipbuilding, information systems, and marine systems, as well asland and amphibious combat systems. The company has experiencedsignificant growth over the years due to continuous innovation, whichhas endured that the company has remained in top position in itsfields of operation. Over the last few years, the company undertooksome changes that included restructuring, downsizing and ensured thatthe management took control of the company (Dials &amp Murphy,1995). The position of the management was tied to its obligationtowards share holders. Apart from innovation, the company’s successis linked to its ability to diversify its business and have othersources of business apart from government. This cushions it fromerratic incomes based on government’s expenditure in its productsespecially with regard to military combat.

    1. Strategic goals

      1. Vision

GeneralDynamic’s vision is to be the leading company in provision ofaerospace and defense technologies. Although the company does nothave a standard vision statement, the company’s endeavor to be amarket leader is derived from its mission and core values. Thediversification of services also ensures that the company remains atthe top of innovation in information technologies that are gearedtowards aerospace and defense technologies. The continuous innovationhas kept the company ahead in the information technology sector andthe focus is geared towards customer satisfaction by meeting customergoals and missions.

      1. Mission

GeneralDynamics’ mission is to help customers achieve their mission andsuccess. This is done by providing technologies that are innovative,affordable, timely and relevant to customers. This is achievedthrough sharp focus on customer expectations and ensuring that thecompany exceeds customer expectations. This is because GeneralDynamics’ core purpose is to achieve customer goals and mission.The continuous dedication to innovation has played a key role inhelping general Dynamics achieve this mission. Additionally,commitment to ethics and respect ensures that the company maintains ahealthy relationship with its customers.

      1. Values.

Thevalues define the culture and standard practices of a company thatdefine its operations. General Dynamics’ values are integrity,trust, teamwork, and respect. The integrity is the company’scommitment to conduct its activities ethically and with honesty.General Dynamics has earned a reputation as a company that makesdecisions and makes decisions through integrity. The companyendeavors to meet the highest ethical standards in the marketsthrough integrity of actions and decisions. This is backed up bytrust between the company and its customers, customers and partners.General Dynamics has honest and open communication with these threegroups of its structure. The company is committed to providing highquality service and continuous improvement of its technologies.General Dynamics also commits itself to delivering on its promises tocustomers.

Thecompany’s employees work as one team, committed to achieving theorganization’s goals and objectives. The company is committed tobest practices, and efficient utilization of resources through teamwork so as to meet customer expectations. This has led to continuousgrowth and profitability through a strong team spirit. This team workis further strengthened by the company’s respect for customers andcolleagues through professionalism. This is achieved through asystematic combination of experience, ideas, culture, and background.The mutual respect for ideas results in improved productivity andhighest results to customer expectations. The four values influencestrategic planning as well as the decision making process at GeneralDynamics.

      1. Strategy

Themost important strategy employed by General Dynamics is commitment toinnovation, which has ensured that the company continues to respondto market needs and maintain relevance. The commitment to innovationis further boosted by the core values that influence decision makingand actions that are geared towards best practices. Innovationensures that General Dynamics is always ahead in informationtechnology, which increases its competitiveness (Dials &amp Murphy,1995). Innovation is closely tied to responsiveness to customer needsas general Dynamics is committed to assisting customers to meet theirmissions.

Thesecond and most important strategy is hinged on moving towards wherethe business is doing well. General Dynamics has diversified itsoperations and any time there are budget cuts or economic slowdown inone area, the company make up for this by moving to other lucrativesectors. The company is committed to acquiring companies thatspecialize in IT and health as part of its strategy of moving towhere the money is found (Dials &amp Murphy, 1995). Once an industryposts high profit margins or generates high revenues, GeneralDynamics acquires contractors in this sector. This aggressivestrategy ensures that the company maintains high profits as itconcentrates on profit generating industries (Thakor, 2011). Thisreduced over reliance on one sector ensures that the company staysahead profitability.

Thecompany also has a strategy that links management compensation toshareholder wealth creation. This ensures that management setsstrategies and goals that consistently generate more revenue andincrease the profit margins. This was implemented through a strategicdownsizing and restructuring that made the company’s operationslean and efficient. This puts management at the helm of operationsand ensures that the management remains alert on market changes.Commitment to always improve shareholder margins ensures that theprofit margins are set on an ever increasing path.

    1. Goals, objectives, and targets

GeneralDynamics’ major goal is to always achieve the customer’s missionand attain their goals. This goal is tied to constant innovation andhigh standards of ethical operations (Thakor, 2011). The company isalso committed to open and honest communication with its clients andthis ensures that it is always in contact with changing marketdynamics that ensure that it is responsive to customer needs, inaddition to surpassing customer expectations (Bierly, Gallagher &ampSpender, 2014). The goals also encompass staying relevant byacquiring contractors who are in sectors that are performing well inthe industry. The main goal is to, however, meet customer needs andif possible stay ahead by surpassing customer expectations.

Objectivesare the results that a company wishes to achieve within a specificperiod. General Dynamics’ objective is to offer the best solutionin technology and other fields of its operations. The company’sobjective is to attain this through continuous innovation as well asmaintain high ethical standards through integrity in action anddecision making (Thakor, 2011). These objectives ensure that thecompany makes continuous profits through diversified as well asstreamlined operations. The objective is also to becoming the companyof choice of all its products and maintaining a healthy customerrelationship with its clients.

Thecompany targets to attain maximum customer satisfaction and increaseits sales volumes continuously. This target is informed by the needto improve shareholder revenues and maintain a healthy profit margin.The target is, therefore, geared towards operating in industries thathave proven profitable and sustainable. The company distributes itsrevenues based on the profitability of an industry (Thakor, 2011).General Dynamics channels large investments in sectors that aregenerating more revenue by reducing on those that are generating lessrevenue. This redistribution of resources ensures that the companykeeps a healthy profit margin.

    1. Role of Christianity

      1. Ethical Approach to conduct

GeneralDynamics has two resources that outline its ethical standards thatevery employee is required to read and they are GeneralDynamics Standards of Business Ethics and Conduct guide (the BlueBook)&nbspand&nbspDoingBusiness with General Dynamics Information Technology.These are guided by Christian values of honesty and integrity. Theethical standards outline on how the company conducts itself towardssuppliers and the disciplinary actions that are enforceable in caseof poor ethical conduct. The company also requires that businesspartners conduct themselves according to these standards. The ethicsare based on honesty, respect, and respect. The ethical standards inthe Blue Book are updated on a regular basis so as to meet market andinternal dynamics.

Theethics also cover business principles, which also ensure that themanagement remains committed to offering the best leadershippractices. The company is committed to proper management of assets soas to get the best, yet fair returns on their assets. The productsoffered are fairly priced, but maintain the highest quality (Bierly,Gallagher &amp Spender, 2014). This covers the process of makingdecisions, which reflects on the company’s culture. The companyalso endeavors to deliver on its promises and take responsibility forits actions. Finally, the business ethics ensure that the companygets fair returns by reasonably pricing their products.

2.0.Concepts Integration for General Dynamics

2.1.Strategy

2.1.1.Market strategy

GeneralDynamics has an aggressive strategy that involves acquiringcontractors that are in profit generating industries at any giventime. The marketing strategy focuses on highlighting the continuousinnovation that ensures that the company’s products remain relevantand offer the best services. The strategy ensures that the acquiredcontractors also adhere to the high standards of innovation so as tocreate profitability through guaranteed quality. The market strategyinvolves studying the market needs and implementing the most suitablestrategies so as to achieve these expectations (Censer, 2012). Thiscreates customer confidence and earns the company many customers asthe goods are fairly priced for the best quality available. This isimplemented through a systematic study of customer needs and mergingthese needs with the best technology in the market. God’s plan formankind is that men ought to put quality ahead of profits. Thestrategy aims at maintaining a strong customer base by offering highquality products.

2.1.2.Operations strategies

Thesedictate how a company uses its resources so as to achieve maximumbenefits. The operations strategies lay down how the availableresources are applied in conducting daily activities so that theoperations efficiency is achieved. General Dynamics’ operationsstrategy involves channeling resources towards sectors that generatemore income while reducing resources in sectors that are not veryprofitable. This ensures that resources are not wasted and thatmaximum efficiency is achieved. This reduces overhead costs andincreases profit margins. This can be done through market studiesthat provide data on revenues generated in different sectors. Thosesectors that do not generate much revenue in the market are subjectto resource reduction and the resources are channeled towardsprofitable sectors. This facilitates efficiency in operations. Thisis according to God’s plan of maximum utilization of resources formaximum benefit.

2.1.3.Finance strategies

GeneralDynamic’s fiancé strategy involves reducing expenditure onmilitary products as the sector has experienced major budget cuts.These cuts have led o declined profits in the industry. GeneralDynamics has maintained profitability by channeling fewer resourcesin this sector and more in information technology. Financial managersat the company are also required to periodically state about theircompliance, as part of the company’s ethical practice. Thisreflects God’s plan for mankind, which is based on maximizingprofits by practicing ethical practices in management of finance. Theaim is to make maximum profits through fair practice.

2.2.Output Planning

2.2.1.Selecting and designing services to be rendered

Theprocess of selecting services is informed by the need to fill amarket gap that is unexplored or not well provided. The process alsoinvolves evaluating the best strategies that are bound to help thecompany get maximum benefits through strategic investment ofresources. The products are then designed to offer the highestquality in terms of services while maintaining fair pricing (Censer,2012). This ensures that the company is always operating in aprofitable environment as investment on services is based on thereturns that are projected to come from the sector. God’s plan formankind is to utilize resources efficiently so that the resources cangive maximum benefit. This is in line with the process of selectingservices to be rendered by General Dynamics that ensures theutilization of resources is based on maximum returns throughefficient designs of services.

2.2.2.Market selection

Themarket is selected based on need and returns. The process of marketselection aims at providing the best services to the clients based ontheir mission and goals. The market selection process is important asit assists the company to make decisions and products that meet thedemands of the selected market. This is important in learning how toretain customer satisfaction by meeting their needs. The process isimportant in understanding God’s plan as God’s purpose is forevery person to fit within a specific area where the person canfulfill his personal duty on earth and help those in need.

2.3.Transformation process design

2.3.1.Measures for ensuring competitiveness

Allsuccessful businesses excel through healthy competition, whichensures that the business endeavors to stay ahead of competitors.Competitiveness is maintained through continuous innovation, whichensures that the company stays ahead of competitors. This process is,however, observant of integrity and ethics as General Dynamics iscommitted to maintaining high ethical standards (Bierly, Gallagher &ampSpender, 2014). This is in line with God’s plan as it ensures thathuman beings and especially companies struggle to offer the bestservices while also maintaining ethical standards, which ought toguide human action. Competitiveness is healthy as it ensures thatclients get the best quality services at affordable prices. Thisfacilitates operational efficiency.

2.4.Quality control

2.4.1.The standards of operation

GeneralDynamics is committed to offering the best quality products andservices though a continuous process of sustained innovation. Thestandards of operation are guided by the principle of putting qualityahead of profits. This is important and it ensures that the companyis committed to meeting customer needs. The standards of operationalso apply to suppliers and partners and the process is marked by acontinuous chain of efficiency and high quality. This is also guideby the principle of maintaining high integrity in operations. Thequality of the products and service offered by General Dynamics ismaintained by innovation, which is based on improving products andservices offered. This is in line with the biblical value of offeringthe best quality that one can possibly offer, regardless of the cost.The aim is to place quality ahead of profits.

2.5.Process improvement

2.5.1.Flexible efficiency for long term success

GeneralDynamics is committed to making daily decisions that are aimed atimproving the company’s performance in the market in the short termand long term. The decisions are helpful as daily processes areessential in achieving the long term goals of the company. Theprocess is marked by flexibility that is aimed at ensuring that thecompany can always adjust its operations based on market needs. Thisis, however, done within the confines of the principles of integrityand maintaining high ethical standards. The plan of God for humanityis to seek to improve life through daily processes that affect thelong term quality of life. This is important as the adjusting tosituations helps a person to improve their lives in the long term.

2.5.2.Techniques for reassuring success

Successis a practiced activity that comes from sustained efforts to do whatis best for the organization. General Dynamics ensures is committedto success by continuously improving its strategic goals and products(Bierly, Gallagher &amp Spender, 2014). The process of makingstrategic decisions is guided by the need to improve on products andservices through sustained innovation, which improves the quality ofproducts offered (Warner, 2010). The most common technique used byGeneral Dynamics is innovation and strategic acquisition ofcontractors in succeeding sectors and improving on the quality ofproducts and services offered. This is important as it createscustomer confidence in the company’s products and services. Thecompany also sustains success through making promises to clients andworking towards fulfilling the promises. This is in line withChristian values of continuous improvement of life through integrity.

2.6.Inventory management

2.6.1.Internal operations vs. outsourcing requirements

GeneralDynamics usually prefers using internal services versus outsourcingas the company is committed to ensuring that its employees understandthe business. The internal operations handle the most importantaspects of the business such as financial management. This ensuresthat the company’s standards are maintained at all times (Censer,2012). The outsourced services are usually those that are in sectors,which are not very profitable as it is cheaper to use outsourcedservices as they are cheaper to maintain. This process is significantin reducing operational costs of the business (Ketchen et al., 2012).This is in line with God’s purpose for man in the process ofincreasing efficiency by handling the most significant aspects oflife.

2.6.2.Raw goods that are inventoried and controlled for easy access

Rawgoods are those that are supplied in order to be used in the processof production. These are controlled through a synchronized IT system,which ensures that the raw goods are supplied on time and utilizedefficiently for purposes of production (Bierly, Gallagher &ampSpender, 2014). This is important to the company as it increasesefficiency and improves the process. This is in line with the plan ofGod for human beings of improving efficiency through a systematiccoordination of services so as to improve the process of production.

2.7.Enterprise and Material Requirements Planning

2.7.1.The technological advantage

Theplanning process requires efficiency and a high level of coordinationin providing service (Ketchen et al., 2012). This is improved throughuse of technologies that facilitate efficiency in operation. GeneralDynamics is committed to proper planning and utilization of materialsand enterprise so as to reduce waste and improve on quality ofservices (Bierly, Gallagher &amp Spender, 2014). This is donethrough systematic innovation in technology, which improves onservices provided as well as the planning process. It is important touse technology for the process as it reduces wastage and increasesefficiency.

2.7.2.Master delivery schedule

Thisis the process of ensuring that a company delivers on its promisesaccording to the scheduled time. This is a supply and logisticsactivity that is designed to ensure that materials are delivered ontime and the products are delivered to clients according to schedule(Thompson, 2011). This is done through a master scheduling processwhere the demand is forecasted through systematic observation ofmarket forces. The forecasted demand is compared to the bookedorders, production capability, and inventory levels (Hitt, Ireland &ampHoskisson, 2013). The master delivery schedule is planned for aspecified period, known as the planning horizon. This is importantfor the company as it ensures that demand and production arebalanced, so as to ensure that delivery is done on the promised time.This is part of biblical plan for man, which aims at keeping promisesso as to build trust and build strong working relations.

2.8.Facility Locations

2.8.1.Locating for success

Thebusiness location is important as this is the contact point withclients. The business ought to be located in a place where itsproducts are on demand for easy access. This also reduces the needfor logistical provisions. General Dynamics is located in areas wherethe demand for its products is high, with branch operations that aretargeted at reaching specific markets. This can be improved through adeliberate partnering with contractors in areas that are close toclients (Deloitte, 2012). This is important as it keeps the cost ofdoing business low, while reaching the highest number of clientspossible. This is in line with strategic goals of reducing overheadcosts and increasing customer contact. It is important to reachclients through the shortest means possible as it builds customerrelations and reduces the cost of products. This plan is in line withbiblical ethics of reaching the highest number of people so as toimpact positively on their lives.

2.8.2.Site selection parameters

GeneralDynamics is committed to choosing the most suitable site for itsproduction and business environment. The aim is to ensure that thearea does not pose any danger to the environment while also remainingclose enough to infrastructure that is important to the business. Thesite selected is based on the need to conserve the environment whilealso keeping operational costs low. This is important to the businessas low operational costs are reflected on the pricing of products(Hitt, Ireland &amp Hoskisson, 2013). Low costs ensure that thebusiness channels resources to areas that are aimed at improving thequality of products through innovation. This is in line with theprincipal of ensuring efficiency is maintained through best practicesand streamlining of services.

  1. Supporting Analysis for General Dynamics Competitive Future

    1. Operating plan

      1. Fiscal planning for the year

GeneralDynamics is planning to focus on improving its jet sales and movingthe sales to 9 million dollars from 7 million dollars in 2014. Theplanning is to improve production of jets, which have shownremarkable improvement in terms of demand (Deloitte, 2012). This isin line with the company’s plan of reducing costs and moving to theareas where the business is good (Thompson, 2012). The business hasfor a long time been driven by information technology, but increaseddemand in the jets sector has necessitated increased production inthe sector (Schineiderman, 2013). This is the fiscal plan for theyear. More revenue will be directed towards jet production so as toincrease production and reap maximum benefits (Thompson, 2012).

GeneralDynamics also plans to increase shareholder returns by a further 7%.This will be done through reduced expenditure in areas that are notgenerating maximum profits and focusing on jet production. Thecompany’s previous revenues stood at 157 million dollars. Thisindicates a constant rise in sales and operations v. This isprojected to rise by an average of 5% in 2014. The company’sexpenditure in 2013 stood at one million dollars, against a projectedexpenditure of 1.5 million dollars. This was facilitated bystreamlining of business operations (Deloitte, 2012). The projectedincrease in revenue is based on the company’s ability to streamlinebusiness operations and aggressively operate in sectors that areprojected to generate a lot of income (Schineiderman, 2013). Themajor goal to be achieved in 2014 is hinged on increased jet sales.This will be a diversion from the company’s focus on informationtechnology (Censer, 2012). The focus on information technology hasyielded great results and the continued innovation and achievement ofcustomer goals is bound to increase revenues

      1. Pitfalls in assessing financial projections

Theprojected financial projections are faced by a number of challengesincluding increased competition from new entrants in the market,increased buyer bargaining capabilities due increased options, andincreased bargaining power of suppliers. This is bound to affect thecompany’s revenues despite its relative stability in the market.The pitfalls are due to reduced revenues as the competition in themarket rises (Murphy &amp Dial, 1993). These pitfalls are becausethe company credits its rise to its strong performance backed byloyal customer base and reputation of high quality. The pitfall isthus, as a result of previous market performance with littleconsideration for the increasing competition in the market.Additionally, market projections indicate that the sale of jets maynot necessarily increase as projected, with no projected new entrantsin the jet business.

    1. Monitoring and Evaluation of Plan

      1. Responsibilities and frequencies of monitoring efforts

GeneralDynamics forecasts its annual revenue improvement through asystematic analysis of duties and activities. The company allocatesresponsibilities to individuals and monitors the progress on aregular basis. The responsibility of the management is to ensure thatthe shareholder equity increases on an annual basis through strategicplanning of operations so as to increase revenues. The strategic planis set annually and the management team is allocated responsibilitiesthat are measured monthly (Hitt, Ireland &amp Hoskisson, 2013). Themonitoring process evaluates the progress of the management inachieving the annual strategic goals. These goals are tied to thecompany’s overall goals and objectives. The monthly monitoringefforts are meant to ensure that any deviation that may derail theachievement of goals are detected and rectified so as to move in theprojected direction.

Theassignment of responsibilities is meant to ensure accountability aswell as allocate the responsibilities to people who have the rightskills and capabilities to achieve the set goals (Weihrich, Koontz &ampCaaice, 2013). The strength of General Dynamics lies in its strongwork force that is committed to achieving the goals and objectives ofthe company (Murphy &amp Dial, 1993). This alienates the threat ofcompetitors as the company’s dedicated work force is based onintegrity and ethics. The monitoring process is meant to ensureaccountability in the process of improving services.

      1. Importance of bottom-up operational planning

Theplanning process at General Dynamics is important and uses a holisticapproach that involves all the employees. This is based on the valueof team work as the bedrock of good performance. The company uses abottom up approach in planning that is relevant to the company’soperations (Wilkinson &amp Kannan, 2013). The process collectsinformation on strategic goals for the year from differentdepartments and the executive compares this to the company’soverall goals. This process brings everyone in the company on boardand facilitates ownership of the goals. The ownership of goalsfacilitates commitment to their achievement and this improves theperformance of employees (Wilkinson &amp Kannan, 2013). Employeesare important in achieving goals and the bottom up approach makesthem part of the planning process and this ensures dedication to thegoals. It also makes the goals clear, which is important in executionof activities.

3.3.3.Implementation process for review and control

Theprocess of implementing operational goals is done through allocationof responsibilities. The systematic implementation is meant tofacilitate an organized system that can be evaluated and reviewedthrough clear guidelines. The implementation process is tied to goalsthat are to be achieved within specific timelines (Hitt, Ireland &ampHoskisson, 2013). The timelines are set according to the process ofimplementation and allocation of resources. The achievement of thegoals is reviewed based on the timelines set for achieving goals.This is based on the implementation process that is based ontimelines.

Thereview process is part of control process. The goals are reviewedoccasionally and control measures are implemented to ensure that thegoals stay on course. Control is essential as it keeps track ongoals. The idea is to ensure that the process of achieving theoverall goals is maintained and commitment to goals and objectives ismaintained and any changes are detected and corrected so as to avoidnegative consequences (Weihrich, Koontz &amp Caaice, 2013). GeneralDynamics facilitates control by having monthly reviews of short termgoals and implementing any changes that may be necessary.

Inconclusion, General Dynamics is the leading company in aviation,shipbuilding, information systems, and marine systems, as well asland and amphibious combat systems. The company has diversified itsbusiness so as to sustain profitability despite industry changes thatare affected by government expenditure. The company uses anaggressive strategy of acquiring contractors in sectors that areperforming well so as to remain relevant. The company’s strongestpoints lie in innovation, ethics and integrity. These have ensuredthat the company maintains a strong customer base that facilitatesgrowth. The company’s values of respect, integrity, teamwork, anddelivering on promises have also ensured that it remains strong inits operations. General Dynamics is also committed in helpingcustomers to achieve their goals and vision. The company recentlydownsized and restructured its business so as to facilitateoperational efficiency.

References

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Deloitte(2012).Global aerospaceand defense industry outlook: A tale of two industries. London: Deloitte Global Services Limited. Retrieved from:https://www.deloitte.com/assets/DcomNorway/Local%20Assets/Documents/Publikasjoner%202012/Deloitte_2012_aerospace_and_defense_outlook.pdf

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Thompson,L. (2012, November 26). “General Dynamics begins 2013 with a newleader, changing business mix.” Forbes.Retrieved from:http://www.forbes.com/sites/lorenthompson/2012/11/26/general-dynamics-begins-2013-with-new-leader-changing-business-mix/

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